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General biology

Biology is the study of life form, from the beginning of life to death. It is a very complex subject, in which various concepts incorporate into one single, coherent field. Biology identifies the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the process of development and extinction of organisms. Biological science covers numerous topics like molecules and their interaction, cellular organization, fundamental process, cell communication and signaling, plant and animal physiology, development biology, inheritance biology, diversity of life form, ecology & evolution, applied methods in biology.

Cell Biology

The cell is the basic fundamental structure of all living beings. It is minute and invisible to the naked eyes, but it is of great importance and contains many essential components. All living things are made up of one or more types of cells through cell division arise from pre-existing cells. Cells contain hereditary DNA that is passed from cell to cell through cell division. Research in cell biology will allow you to get information about the cellular structure like membrane structure, intracellular organelles, organization of genes/chromosome, protein synthesis and its translocation, membrane proteins, membrane transporters, mechanism of regulation, cell signaling, cell division, cell cycle, cell regulation, cell movement and many more.

Molecular biology

It is an area of biology that illuminates our perception and knowledge at the molecular level and interacts with different systems in the organism (prokaryotes and eukaryotes). It describes how molecular functions affect cellular and evolutionary processes. The central dogma of molecular biology explains transcription from DNA to RNA then translates into proteins. Molecular biology studies involve molecular aspects of DNA replication, DNA damage, DNA repair, RNA and protein synthesis and processing, control of gene expression at both transcription and translation levels. Molecular biology also plays a vital role in understanding the functions and regulations of different parts of cells, which is used to efficiently diagnose disease, target new drugs, and understand the cell physiology at the molecular level.


Microbiology is the science of commonly simple life-forms of microorganisms that include bacteria, archaea, algae, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The field is concerned with the structure, function, and classification of such organisms through their activities and control. There is no doubt, microorganisms exist everywhere, and the fact that they affect the environment in many ways makes the research field fascinating and thrilling. Some of the world’s microbiology contributions are dairy products, medicines, vaccines, enzymes, vitamins, and food preservation. Microbiology is a discussion in biological research, anatomy, immunology, and nutrition science for the same reason.

Human biology

Human biology is an interdisciplinary field of study that includes the structure and function of the human body and its interactions. The human body comprises many different types of cells that form tissues and later organs and then systems. They ensure homeostasis and viability of the human body. The study of the human body includes subdivisions include ecology, anthropology, anatomy, physiology, histology, embryology, genetics, and nutrition. Physiology focuses on the systems and organs of the human body and their functions. Human biology encompasses all systems, including the complete system, skeletal, muscular, respiratory, cardiac/circulatory, digestive system, excretory system, reproductive, nervous, endocrine, and immune systems.

Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy refers to the internal and external structures of the body and their physical interactions, while physiology corresponds to the study of the functions of certain structures. Anatomy studies are broadly divided into two sections: macroscopic (gross appearance) and microscopic. The study includes the general anatomy of the complete body and tissue-organ system and living system organization at various levels of the organization. Anatomy and physiology include an internal body condition, stress adaptation, homeostasis, metabolism, skeletal system, circulatory system, and so on. The skeleton protects many vital organs such as the heart, lungs, and liver. Advancement in technology greatly helped in understanding anatomy with physiology, which also contributed to the advancement of medical science.


It is a profession that takes responsibility to take care of the patient and provide continuous support till the disease condition is tolerated. The patient is disabled, injured, dying, or having an infant. The duty of nursing also includes helping with the health of an individual and the health of his family and society. Nurses provide ongoing support in managing health care systems. Nursing courses include basic sciences, nutrition and dietetics, psychology, mental health nursing, medical and surgical nursing, pediatrics, and obstetric nursing.


The study of hereditary and its inheritances are termed genetics. The fundamental terms used in genetics are genes, chromosomes, chemical bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine). The study of genetics comprises mendelian genetics, the discovery of cistron, gene mapping methods, molecular genetics and its innovation, recombinant DNA technology and polymerase chain reaction, mutation, extrachromosomal inheritance, structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes, microbial/human and quantitative genetics. The application of this field has led the researcher to achieve a full advantage by manipulating animals and plants according to their requirement. The study of genetics is applicable in the diagnosis of disease, identification of pathogenic mutations, studying the pattern of inheritance, DNA fingerprinting, and generating genetically modified organisms (GMO’s).

Environmental sciences

This biology branch is hugely complex and includes environmental and related variables such as biological and abiotic factors that affect living organisms. It also covers the ecological community and hence researches the existence of organisms on the globe. Furthermore, environmental biology is about pollution and its various sources. The topics covered under environmental biology are:
  • Food chain/web.

  • Nutrient cycle.

  • Environmental hazards.

  • Climate change.

  • Global warming.

  • Greenhouse effect.

  • Acid rain.

  • Various forms of pollution (air, water, soil, noise, and radioactive).

Ecology & evolution

The interactions between species and their environments can be studied in ecology. The concepts covered in this section typically include developments from ancestral animal processes to modern ones. Evolution includes all the major details of an organism from organism and evolution which is therefore highly relevant for students interested in this evolutionary biology. Ecology combines biodiversity, distribution, biosphere, biomass, and population of a living organism, their range of niche and habitat, interaction within and between species and population with the surrounding. The interaction may be co-operative and competitive within (intra) and between species (inter) and population for their requirement of food, habitat/niche. In ecosystems, the living organism interacts with the surrounding system (open and closed). Ecology is interrelated with evolution. Ecology explains the diversity of flora and fauna, while evolution is the gradual progression of development over successive generations and new species’ origin. The most evolved species are formed in a given situation as mutation, sex and recombination, gene flow, and adaptation resulting – natural selection. Evolution includes the emergence of evolutionary theories, molecular evolution, and mechanisms. Also, development, social behavior, and interaction with the environment, migration, and navigation according to their needs are included. The species is the most developed that can survive and breed healthily in the given criteria with efficient use of resources. The species that can survive can best dominate other species.

Botany/Plant biology

The study of plant biology or botany involves the plant’s life cycle, its physiological, morphological properties, and classification. More information about the origin of plants and plant-related diseases is available through this topic. The knowledge gained by plant biology will help in promoting various fields such as agriculture, horticulture, and forestry. It is beneficial to provide food, medicine, housing, clothing, decoration, and equipment to humanity in many ways. The topics covered under Botany are plant morphology, physiology, ecology, systemic, and related taxonomy studies and distribution. Photosynthesis, photoreception, nitrogen metabolism, plant hormones, sensory photobiology of the foramen, photoperiodism, biological clocks, wilp transport, photoassimilate translocation, and secondary metabolites, stress physiology are all covered by plant biology in all disciplines.

Zoology/Animal biology

Zoology is studying animals with their development, morphology, anatomy, physiology, habitat, distribution, and classification of the animal kingdom. It includes embryology, adaptation, development, evolutionary origin, behavior, their intersection with surroundings (socialism); animal physiology is the branch of biology which deals which the physiological function and process taking place inside the animal body. The information present in this field starts at the molecular level and extends to the characteristics of the individual animal. The detail comprises animal fauna and the relationship between different animal and their surrounding environment. The major topics covered in this field are animal, physiology, biochemistry, developmental biology, evolution, genetics, cellular and molecular biology, ecology, taxonomic, ethology. Related studies that provide support in zoological research are histology, staining, microscopy, etc. Zoology is applied to an expanded part of the field, including modern and advanced animal studies, including advanced technologies.

Development biology

Developmental biology is the study of progress and consequent changes in size, shape, and function during the developmental life of an organism. Development occurs from embryo to adult or through the entire life cycle. Growth can be genetic or phenotypic in plants and animals. The potential importance of creation to understand evolution, the concept of genetic interpretations for scarcity and more attention to detail in specific research projects such as stem cell biology have demonstrated an interest for biologists. Rich materials and philosophical practices are explored in developmental biology so that theoretical reasoning can be better understood in experimental life sciences. Some of the concepts we study in developmental biology include capacity, induction, specification, potential, cell fate, cell lineage, determination, differentiation, gametogenesis, fertilization, growth, morphology and organogenesis, aging, aging, and programmed Cell death.


The study of the immune system is known as immunology, which is very relevant to animals and plants’ immunity against invasion/attack by other organisms or particles. The immune system protects us against infection through several defense lines. In some cases, it can give rise to diseases such as allergies, autoimmunity, and cancer if they are not working as they should. It has now been found that immune responses often play a role in developing many common disorders that have not historically been considered immune responses, such as heart, metabolism, and neurodegenerative. Some common topics we study under immunology are an antigen, antibodies, innate and adaptive immune systems, humoral and cell-mediated responses, antigen-antibody structure and interactions, MHC molecules, complement systems, immunodeficiency, autoimmune diseases, lymphoid organs (Thymus, Bone marrow), and lymphatic tissue (liver, spleen and lymph nodes) hypersensitivity, and vaccination. Immunology has applications in many disciplines of medicine, particularly in organ transplantation, immuno-supplementation, oncology, rheumatology, virology, bacteriology, parasitology, psychiatry, and dermatology.

Cancer biology

Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and unregulated division of cells. When a normal cell is not under the control of regulatory factors, it transforms into cancerous cells. These rapid growing cancerous cells create different microenvironment which unable immune system to work against them. The severity of cancer may be benign or malignant. Most cancer forms are tumourous, except leukemia. A single cell undergoes apoptosis to replace it with more functional cells. Cancer cells do not go for apoptosis; even after some round of replication or attaining a size, they started to migrate and metastasized into other organs. The topics covered in cancer biology are proto-oncogene, oncogene, cancer suppressors, metastasis, carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma, biopsy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy.

Biomedical sciences

Biomedical sciences developed for the welfare of living organism’s health and their improvement. Biomedical research focuses on the functioning of cells, organs, and processes in the human body, a dynamic and complex field that is extremely important to understanding and treating human diseases. This course offers students improved education in modern biology and neuroscience of molecules, cells, structures, and systems. Biomedical science is particular designed to support and enhance the health of living organisms. It is an enriching and exciting science discipline with excellent strength for study, growth, and employment. Bio-medical sciences strive primarily to provide knowledge on medical devices, medicine, and other treatment methods. The sub-branches of biomedical sciences are biophysics, pharmacology, human pathology, toxicology, medicinal chemistry, cell and radiation biology, medical microbiology, human physiology and anatomy, genetic engineering, bio-instrumentation, orthopedic surgery, cellular and tissue engineering. Because the science of medicine is currently progressing strongly, biomedical studies are becoming extremely relevant worldwide.
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